The concept of a point
particle is wrong
In quantum mechanics, the
concept of a point-like particle is complicated
by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, because
even an elementary particle, with no internal
structure, occupies a nonzero volume. There is
nevertheless a distinction between elementary
particles such as electrons, photon or quarks,
which have no internal structure, versus
composite particles such as protons, which do
have internal structure.
QED rests on the idea that charged particles
(e.g., electrons and positrons) interact by
emitting and absorbing photons, the particles of
light that transmit electromagnetic forces.
These photons are virtual; that is, they cannot
be seen or detected in any way because their
existence violates the conservation of energy
and momentum. If the electromagnetic field is
defined in terms of the force on a charged
particle, then it is tempting to say that the
field itself consists of photons which cause a
force on a charged particle by being absorbed by
it or simply colliding with it - as in the
Photo-electric effect. The electric repulsion
between two electrons could then be understood
as follows: One electron emits a photon and
recoils; the second electron absorbs the photon
and acquires its momentum. Clearly the recoil of
the first electron and the impact of the second
electron with the photon drive the electrons
away from each other. So much for repulsive
forces. How can attraction be represented in
The uncertainty principle makes this possible.
The attraction between an electron and a
positron may be described as follows: the
electron emits a photon with momentum directed
away from the positron and thus recoils towards
the positron. This entails a degree of
definiteness in the momentum of the photon.
There must be a corresponding uncertainty in its
position - it could be on the other side of the
positron so that it can hit it and knock it
towards the electron.
According to the quantum mechanics that photon
is an unstructured particle,
how can we explain the relationship between the
photon energy and frequency, and also pair
production and decay?
Is there a way to explain virtual photon (in
fact interaction between charged particles)
without using the uncertainly principle?
Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a
single photon may inform design of quantum
ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is
about photons of light, which are packets of
energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules
in what you're looking at. Some photons reflect
off, reaching your eyes. Others get absorbed.
The main decider of which happens is the
photon's energy - its colour.
But look closely at the moment that light meets
matter, and there's more to be discovered.
Scientists at the Centre for Quantum
Technologies (CQT) at the National University of
Singapore have just shown that a photon's shape
also affects how it is absorbed by a single
We don't often think of photons as being spread
out in time and space and thus having a shape,
but the ones in this experiment were some four
metres long. Christian Kurtsiefer, Principal
Investigator at CQT, and his team have learned
to shape these photons with extreme precision.
For the research, published 29 November in
Nature Communications, the team worked
with Rubidium atoms and infrared photons. They
shone the photons one at a time onto a single
at the Centre for Quantum Technologies at the
National University of Singapore have shown that
a photon's shape affects how it is absorbed by a
single atom. This artist's illustration is not
to scale: in the experiment the photons are some
4 meters long, while the atom is less than a
nanometer wide. Credit: Timothy Yeo / Centre for
Quantum Technologies, National University of
"Our experiments look at the most fundamental
interaction between matter and light" says
Victor Leong, for whom the work contributed to a
A four-metre photon takes about 13 nanoseconds
to pass the atom. Every time a photon was sent
towards the atom, the team watched to see if
and when the atom got excited. By noting the
excitation times and collecting them together,
the researchers could map the probability of the
atom absorbing the photon as a function of time.
The team tested two different photon shapes -
one rising in brightness, the other decaying.
Hundreds of millions of measurements made over
1500 hours showed that the overall probability
that a single Rubidium atom would absorb a
single photon of either type was just over 4%.
However, when the team looked at the process on
nanoscale timeframes, they saw that the
probability of absorption at each moment depends
on the photon's shape.
There are many
articles that show, photon has upper limit mass
and electric charge, which are consistent with
experimental observations [3 and 4]. However, in
CPH theory photons are combination of positive
and negative virtual photons. Photon is a very
weak electric dipole that is consistent with the
experience and these articles are asserted. In
addition, this property of photon (very weak
electric dipole) can describe the absorption and
emission energy by charged particles.
To understand the
structure of photon, there are at least two ways
of the Dirac's equation and Sea
2. The behavior of
photons in the gravitational field
ways reach to the same results.
Generalization of the Dirac's Equation and Sea
reconsidered Dirac equation and Sea several
times. In the last edition by reconsidering the
Dirac Sea and his equation, the structure of
photon is investigated and it is made an attempt
to answer these following questions:
1- What is the
relation between photon and its electromagnetic
2- Does force have
physical existence or it is just a mathematical
tool to describe physical interactions?
3- What is the
mechanism of converting potential energy to
kinetic energy and vice versa?
4-What is the
relation between gravity and electromagnetics?
5-What is the
relation between Weyl fermions and Dirac
Photon-Graviton Interaction and CPH Theory
In recent decades,
the structure of photon is discussed. In this
article, description the structure of photon is
based on the behavior of photons in a
gravitational field, leading to a new a
definition of the graviton too. In effect,
gravitons behave as if they have charge and
magnetic effects. These are referred to as
negative color charge, positive color charge and
magnetic color. From this, it can be shown that
a photon is made of color charges and magnetic
and both special and general relativity describe
outward of phenomena regardless the properties
of sub quantum scales. At the beginning of the
20th century, Newton's second law was corrected
considering the limit speed c and the
relativistic mass. At that time there has not
been a clear understanding of the subatomic
particles and basically there was little
research in high energy physics.
Also, in quantum
mechanics, the concept of a point particle is
complicated by the Heisenberg uncertainty
principle, because even an elementary particle,
with no internal structure, occupies a nonzero
It should be noted
that the interaction between large objects (e.g.
collision of two bodies) under the action of the
sub quantum layer done.
Attention to photon
structure and using new definitions for
graviton, charged and exchange particles will
change our perspective on modern physics. It
also provides us with a new tool to be able to
overcome physics problems in a better way.
In addition, the
root of the quantum gravity problem is that
physicists want to solve the quantum gravity
problem regardless to the classical mechanics.
Thus CPH Theory, from a new approach, turns out
to merge the fundamental principles of quantum
physics, relativity and classical mechanics.
the universe made of? How did it start?
Theory of Everything
and before the Big Bang
The concept of a point-like
particle is wrong
understanding of antimatter is wrong
Does EVERYTHING happen at the same time, really?
What is light charged Higgs boson scenario,
Leong, et. al., "Time-resolved scattering of a
single photon by a single atom",
Nature Communications (2016).
DOI: 10.1038/ncomms13716. Preprint available at:
the interaction of a single atom with a single
photon may inform design of quantum devices,
Phys.org, December 2, 2016, available at:
Heeck, J. (2013). How stable is
the photon? Physical review letters, 111(2),
Liang-Cheng Tu, Jun Luo and
George T Gillies, "The mass of the photon" Rep.
Prog. Phys. 68 (2005) 77-130 ,
Antonio Accioly, Jos´e
Helay¨el-Neto, and Eslley Scatena, "Upper bounds
on the photon mass",
 Giuseppe Cocconi, "Upper
limit for the electric charge of the photons
from the millisecond pulsar 1937+21
observations" Physics Letters B
Volume 206, Issue 4, 2 June 1988, Pages 705-706
V. V. Kobychev and S. B. Popov,
"Constraints on the Photon Charge from
Observations of Extragalactic Sources"
Astronomy Letters, Vol. 31, No.
3, 2005, pp. 147-151.
C Sivaram and Kenath Arun "Some
Additional Bounds on the Photon Charge"
L.B. Okun, "PHOTON: HISTORY,
MASS, CHARGE", ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA B Vol. 37
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