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The year in science: 'God particles' and the cloak of invisibility?




The year in science: 'God particles' and the cloak of invisibility?

Like a modern tower of Babel story, a new quest to find the "God particle" got off to an all-too-human start in 2008.

More than two dozen countries had contributed more than $8 billion to fund the Large Hadron Collider, the world's largest and highest-energy particle accelerator. Buried up to 575 feet underneath the French-Switzerland border region near Geneva, it's a tunnel 17 miles in circumference containing 9,300 superconducting magnets cooled by 106 tons of liquid helium. It's all designed to crash opposing beams of protons into each other at 99.99 percent of the speed of light.

One major goal: See if the Higgs boson -- the so-called "God particle" -- really exists. It is theorized to be the particle that endows all other particles with mass and may be the key to proving the "theory of everything." In addition, scientists hope the collider will find other exotic particles and shed light on dark matter, dark energy and extra dimensions.

But wouldn't you know it? A week after the collider was fired up Sept. 10, an electrical glitch and helium leak shut the monster down until at least this spring.

Although a bit esoteric, it was arguably the biggest science story of 2008, if only for its sheer size. What follows is a brief look at other candidates, ranging from ice on Mars to a law that bans genetic discrimination:

Look, Mom, no scars

Through the teeth and over the gums, watch out stomach, here they come!

What is usually an irreverent toast now describes the latest in operations -- orifice surgery. Instead of making incisions through skin and muscle that take time to heal and risk infection, surgeons now are inserting instruments down the throat and, in women, through the vagina.

On July 23, Carrie Williamson, of Granite City, became the first patient in the United States to have her stomach stapled during such a procedure at Barnes-Jewish Hospital in St. Louis. Doctors snaked a camera and flexible stapling devices down her throat to perform the incision-free procedure designed to help obese patients feel full after a small meal.

In March, a surgical team at the University of California in San Diego removed a woman's appendix through her vagina. And, in June, a Portland, Ore., surgeon removed a woman's gall bladder through her mouth.

In other major medical news, a new drug known as Rember showed promise in attacking those brain tangles associated with Alzheimer's disease; it's now in the final phase of testing. In addition, receiving bone marrow cells along with a new kidney allowed several transplant patients to stop taking immunosuppressive drugs.

Ice on Mars

NASA celebrated its 50th anniversary last year not with champagne but with water when its Phoenix lander confirmed the existence of ice on Mars.

It was one of the biggest discoveries Mars has ever yielded, made even more amazing because Phoenix was fashioned from salvaged parts on a relatively cheap ($420 million) budget. The existence of water adds weight to the argument that some form of life may exist or, at least, once existed on Mars.

But that was just the start of a banner year in space. Last year also saw NASA launch the most shuttle missions ever -- four, including the latest in November that carried Belleville native Sandra Magnus to the International Space station for a three-month stay.

In addition, NASA test-fired its next-generation rocket engine, sent instruments to the moon aboard an Indian lunar orbiter and shared the joy of Michael Phelps' eight gold medals because it had helped design his Speedo LZR Racer swimsuit.

Still other NASA probes visited Mercury for the first time in 33 years and witnessed plumes of water vapor on Saturn's moon Enceladus. Meanwhile, Spirit and Opportunity, those two tiny Mars rovers, are about to start their sixth year of exploration on the Red Planet.

It's in your genes

It's a scary thought for anyone.

Currently, there are genetic tests for more than 1,500 medical conditions. Even flaws in a single gene can cause illnesses such as sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis and Huntington's. Yet most of these tests reveal only a predisposition to the illness, not an iron-clad certainty.

But what happens if an insurance company or prospective employer learns you have one of these predispositions? Could they deny you coverage or a job?

Not anymore. Thirteen years in the making, the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) was passed by Congress and signed into law May 21. It prohibits health insurers from denying coverage or raising premiums based solely on a predisposition to developing a disease in the future. It also bars employers from using genetic information to make employment decisions, including hiring, firing and promotion.

It is hoped the law will help patients feel more confident that they can have necessary medical screenings without fear of repercussions. It couldn't have come at a better time: Companies now are starting to offer do-it-yourself DNA tests for a few hundred dollars.

What's out there

Astronomers enjoyed an out-of-this-world thrill in 2008 when they managed to take the first photographs of planets outside the solar system.

Until now, the existence of so-called "exoplanets" had to be inferred by their gravitational effects on their host star. Even this produced exciting results: This year, for example, methane and carbon dioxide were found in the atmosphere of one such planet, a sign of possible life elsewhere in the universe.

But astronomers were even more jubilant when the Hubble Space Telescope took the first snapshot of a planet circling another star -- in this case, a planet three times the size of Jupiter orbiting the star Fomalhaut in the constellation Piscis Australia. Three other planets were photographed as well.

Astronomers also decided on a name for those small worlds outside the orbit of Neptune in our own solar system. They're now known as plutoids, named for the former planet Pluto.

Food for thought

What would happen if a massive natural disaster or nuclear war wiped out large areas of agricultural production? Now, countries can turn to what is being called the "Doomsday Vault," a giant seed repository that opened last February in a desolate part of Norway north of the Arctic Circle.

A year in construction, the Svalbard Global Seed Vault is both inside a mountain and underground, making it virtually indestructible and off the beaten path of a military attack. Its first shipment included 268,000 seed samples.

That may sound like a lot of seeds until you consider that wheat has more than 200,000 international varieties and corn more than 30,000. Duplications are necessary so that if seeds fail in one area, they can be tried elsewhere. Eventually, the seed bank will contain hundreds of thousands of seed types from 100 countries. Experts say they would be able to germinate even 10,000 years from now.

Early ancestors

While most of the world was focused on the new first family coming to Washington, D.C., scientists in November were excited about another family that was first in every sense of the word (at least so far). In central Germany, they uncovered the oldest nuclear family ever discovered -- the 4,600-year-old graves of a foursome interred together after apparently being killed in a raid or other combat.

The bodies included an adult male and female and two children, one 8 or 9 and the other 4 or 5. DNA analysis confirmed they were mother, father and two sons, and scientists suggest their burial together shows the importance of family even in Stone Age life.

In another startling find, scientists in northern Spain dug up the jaw bone of the earliest humanlike ancestor ever uncovered in Europe. Thought to be some 1.2 million years old, it is 400,000 years older than any previous human find and may change theories on when and how our earliest ancestors came to Europe. Until now, it was assumed that they established themselves in the Near East and then spread out to Asia and Europe.

And, calling someone a Neanderthal may eventually be a compliment. Although they are generally regarded as simple-minded cavemen in insurance commercials, discoveries on Gibraltar this year found they fished, cooked and crafted quality tools. In addition, Neanderthal mothers may have needed to exhibit more maternal care to nurture their infants, whose brains, scientists suspect, were as large as modern humans.

Greening of America

Barack Obama wasted no time waving the red, white, blue and green when it comes to the environment.

To fill the secretary of energy spot in his cabinet, Obama chose Dr. Steven Chu, a physicist who directs the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. A 1997 Nobel Prize winner, much of Chu's work has focused on ways to make solar power more practical and affordable. The pick suggests that Obama will focus on alternative fuels as a major source for the nation's demand for energy.

He soon may receive a boost from the Environmental Protection Agency. In a report last summer, the EPA concluded that a warmer climate could directly and indirectly hurt the United States in ways ranging from droughts and heat waves to a proliferation of insects. And, while the Bush administration opposes any regulation of greenhouse gas emissions, the EPA this spring is expected to publish its final report on the effects of such regulation.

Meanwhile, the consequences of climate change continue to mount. The Arctic ice cap is a third smaller than average seen from 1980-2000. Polar bears were put on the endangered species list because of their loss of habitat. And, more scientists are calling for a maximum carbon dioxide level of 350 parts per million, down nearly 30 percent from their previous maximum.

Worse, new studies this year showed that increased production of ethanol or, worse, biofuels from plants such as switchgrass would actually raise greenhouse gas emissions, not reduce them as once thought.

Manmade DNA

Instead of building a better mousetrap, scientists may be starting to build a better mouse.

At least, that's what Nobel Prize-winning biologist Hamilton began to accomplish at the J. Craig Venter Institute in Rockville, Md. From scratch, he and his team synthesized an entire bacterial genome, modeling it after a real bacterium known as Mycoplasma genitalium. They started with fragments of about 6,000 base pairs of genetic material, copied it and stitched it together into a genome containing nearly 583,000 base pairs.

Now, Hamilton wants to insert his manmade DNA into a living cell and see if it can take charge of that organism. The ultimate goal is to create artificial cells that will perform useful tasks such as breaking down pollutants or producing new types of biofuel. He says he is making sure such cells could not live outside a laboratory, but already some scientists are worried that others may use the technology to create biological weapons.

Science oddities

And, finally, a few last odds and ends -- some more odd than others -- from the world of science in 2008:

• Watch out Harry Potter, scientists may be starting to unravel the secret of your cloak of invisibility. Using almost unimaginably thin wires, researchers created a sheet that could, effectively, make light bounce backward, rendering objects wrapped in the sheet invisible. Practical applications are far too expensive at this point but can a better cone of silence be far behind?

• In 1965, Gordon Moore, one of the co-founders of Intel, saw that the size of transistors was being cut in half every two years. We may be nearing the limit: A team of European physicists reported creating a transistor 10 atoms square by 1 atom thick. It's made of graphene, which already has been shown to outperform silicon.

• We may be 25 years past 1984, but in some ways we're still approaching that Orwellian world. Last June, a judge in India ruled that a brain scan proved that a woman on trial for murder had knowledge about the crime that only the perpetrator could possess. She was sentenced to life in prison; reactions by American scientists ranged from "fascinating" to "unconscionable," according to the New York Times.

• Think the Terminator movies are pretty far-fetched? Not anymore. Mark Kim, an engineering professor at the University of Pennsylvania, designed a robot from 15 blocks, which, when kicked apart, was able to reassemble itself in its original form. The Department of Defense is looking into the application of such an independent-minded machine in war zones. It'll be back, Ah-nold.

• In a rare bit of good news for one endangered species, scientists went ape when they found there may be as many as 125,000 more western lowland gorillas in the forests of the Republic of Congo. Of course, that news was tempered by war in the country next door that threatens to wipe out even more of the 350 mountain gorillas in Virunga National Park, half of the world's total. Too bad they don't live in Spain: In a law expected to go into effect in June, great apes in Spain have been granted legal rights that protect them from research and exploitation.

• It's official: Scientists in Australia have determined that the bite of the great white shark is the most powerful of any living species: just shy of 4,000 pounds of force. Don't worry, no humans were harmed in the making of this study; it was all done by computer modeling.

• Here's something many will drink to: The Food and Drug Administration said last month that it will reconsider its opinion that bisphenol A (BPA) is safe. The agency said it would consider hundreds of independent studies of the estrogen-mimicking chemical that's often found in baby bottles and other containers. Animal studies show even low concentrations can interfere with reproduction and development, and, in September, another study found humans with the highest BPA levels were more prone to heart disease and diabetes. If you're looking to avoid the stuff, don't use containers with the recycling number 7 on them.

• Harvard scientists managed to steer clear of the ongoing stem-cell controversy by administering three proteins to the pancreases of adult mice. The result? They turned non-insulin-producing cells into insulin producers. They hope the idea one day can be applied to treat type 2 diabetes in humans and possibly neurodegenerative and heart diseases as well.

• If you are math-challenged, you might want to join the Piraha people in the Amazon rain forest of Brazil. In one of the biggest anthropological finds last year, scientists discovered that the tribe has no words to express numbers or mathematical concepts.

• And, it turns out that creatures have been doin' what comes naturally far longer than scientists ever knew. In May, paleontologists in Western Australia announced unearthing a pregnant fish nearly 400 million years old. Until now, the oldest record of copulation in higher animals were 180-million-year-old fish.


Source: http://www.bnd.com/yourlife/story/603619.html





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Since 1962 I doubted on Newton's laws. I did not accept the infinitive speed and I found un-vivid the laws of gravity and time.

I learned the Einstein's Relativity, thus I found some answers for my questions. But, I had another doubt of Infinitive Mass-Energy. And I wanted to know why light has stable speed?




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