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  CPH Theory is based  on  Generalized light velocity from energy  into mass.


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In Search of the God Particle





In Search of the God Particle



2008-03-28 21:53:54.0

The biggest experiment in physics starts this summer in Europe. Will it change our views of the universe and our place in it?


The biggest experiment in particle physics, the Large Hadron Collider, starts this summer in Switzerland. The goal is to find signs of an elusive particle called the Higgs boson-also known as the "God particle" because it might ultimately lead to a grand theory of the universe. What impact will the experiments have on our ideas of the cosmos and our place in it? To find out, NEWSWEEK's Ana Elena Azpurua spoke about science and religion with theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate Steven Weinberg at the University of Texas in Austin. Excerpts:

After this experiment, will we have a final theory of how the universe was created?
It is possible that this experiment will give theoretical physicists a brilliant new idea that will explain all the particles and all the forces that we know and bring everything together in a beautiful mathematically consistent theory. But it is very unlikely that a final theory will come just from this experiment. If had to bet, I would bet it won't be that easy.

As we come closer to developing an ultimate theory of the universe, how will this impact religion?
As science explains more and more, there is less and less need for religious explanations. Originally, in the history of human beings, everything was mysterious. Fire, rain, birth, death, all seemed to require the action of some kind of divine being. As time has passed, we have explained more and more in a purely naturalistic way. This doesn't contradict religion, but it does takes away one of the original motivations for religion.



US lawsuit calls Large Hadron Collider a Doomsday Machine, Higgs boson shrugs

Posted Mar 28th 2008 7:20AM by Thomas Ricker

If OJ made one thing perfectly clear, it's that the word "reason," at the root of "reasonable doubt" has lost all meaning in the US court system. So what do you think will be the outcome of a new lawsuit claiming that CERN's Large Hadron Collider is a Doomsday machine? The suit filed in Hawaii's US District Court by Luis Sancho and a former nuclear safety officer by the name of Walter Wagner, seeks to put the already delayed LHC launch on hold pending a new safety review. It's worth noting that the same doomsday scenarios of micro black holes and strangelets (think: the Midas Touch of death) have been raised by Wagner previously with the launch of other accelerators -- they've also been summarily dismissed by the scientific community as "beyond reasonable." It's also worth noting that the 27km-long LHC crisscrosses the border between France and Switzerland, not the US. An initial conference on the lawsuit is scheduled for June 16th, a few months before the first collisions are scheduled to begin and well before LHC is capable of its 4 trillion electron-volts maximum power. Peter Higgs, we feel your pain.





A Grand Experiment

A 27-kilometer underground loop of magnets will soon go to work on the universe's deepest mysteries.



abrice Coffrini / AFP-Getty Images

Superconducting: A big magnet at CERN


For a research physicist, Sandra Ciocio knows all about the trials of the construction site. In recent years she's seen 7,000 tons of sensitive equipment lowered down a 100-meter shaft to prepare for a single grand experiment. The technology was groundbreaking and the schedule punishing. "It's been deadline, deadline, deadline," she says. "I haven't had a holiday in five years." But when the first real data begin to emerge this summer, the possible rewards should be worth the effort: a final explanation of one of the last puzzles ofphysics. "I feel like crying," says Ciocio. "It's like a dream come true."

This dream should offer new insight into the nature of the cosmos. Deep beneath a tranquil patch of farmland, Ciocio and her colleagues at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, known as CERN, have built the world's biggest and most sophisticated scientific instrument, the Large Hadron Collider, housed in a 27-kilometer tunnel that loops beneath the French-Swiss border. Using unprecedented energy, it will re-create the conditions a fraction of a millisecond after the big bang that gave birth to the cosmos 14 billion years ago. The goal: to track down a single elusive particle whose existence—if it can be proved—would fill a critical gap in our understanding of the universe.

This particular mystery has a daunting history. More than 30 years ago scientists developed an elegant series of equations, called the Standard Model, that describes the make-up of the universe in terms of the relationship between a few fundamental particles and forces. But the model has gaps. (In physics, the more you can explain, the more you realize you don't understand.) One gap is the baffling issue of mass. Why are some particles heavy while others have no mass at all? According to the leading theory, the weight of a particle depends on how it interacts with a mysterious "Higgs field" that permeates all space. So far scientists haven't found any evidence that this field—and its associated particle, the Higgs boson—exists. They've been waiting for a particle collider big enough to perform the necessary experiments. The Large Hadron Collider was built to fit this bill.

The idea behind the collider is simple: get protons—positively charged particles present in every atom—going fast, crash them into each other and observe the fragments. The LHC will use superconducting magnets to guide the protons round and round the subterranean ring until they're going almost as fast as light. The resulting collisions will release unprecedented amounts of energy (equivalent to 100,000 times the temperature at the center of the sun). With luck, they'll also produce, among a shower of lesser particles, the long-sought Higgs boson.

The collider may also throw up clues to puzzles that arise at the strange intersection of particle physics and astronomy. To understand the cosmos, scientists must understand how it developed from those first primordial particles. "In effect, what we have is far and away the most capable microscope ever built, and the most powerful telescope ever built," says theoretical physicist John Ellis. A central mystery is the supposed existence of invisible "dark matter," and its counterpart "dark energy," a strange force that seems to accelerate the expansion of the universe. Although together the dark pair make up for 96 percent of the universe, scientists know next to nothing about them—only their gravitational effects. Those grand collisions may produce undiscovered particles that account for both. The collider might also reveal yet another set of particles, the "superpartners," needed to bolster the case for String Theory, a "theory of everything" that proposes the existence of six extra dimensions and a universe constructed of tiny vibrating strings.

All this knowledge comes with a whopping price tag: the collider will cost about €3 billion. Its annual energy consumption will match the entire city of Geneva's. The 1 billion collisions taking place every second, captured and filtered by underground detectors, will generate enough data to fill 100,000 CDs a year. But ultimate knowledge is worth it, says CERN boss Robert Aymar. "Mankind has to ask itself these questions, and the tools are not available off the shelf."

It's entirely possible that after all this money and effort the collider's detectors will find no trace of the Higgs boson. That would still make the project worthwhile, researchers say. It would indicate beyond the shadow of a doubt that the Standard Model, the basis of modern physics, requires a radical rethinking. "Our theorist friends tell us to look this way or the other, but maybe Nature is telling us to look behind us," says Tejinder Virdee, a physicist from Imperial College in London.

The Geneva experiments will keep scientists occupied for 20 years or more. "This is truly a once-in-a-generation experiment," says Virdee, "but it will take a generation to do." Setting up the world's greatest experiment took more than a decade: fixing the nature of the cosmos will take a little longer.






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General Science Journal

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Structure of Charge Particles

Faster Than Light 

Light that travels…faster than light!

Before the Big Bang

Structure of Charge Particles

Move Structure of Photon

Structure of Charge Particles

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Speed of Light and CPH Theory [PDF]

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Sub-Quantum Chromodynamics [PDF]

Effective Nuclear Charge [PDF]

Maxwell's Equations in a Gravitational Field [PDF]

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Questions and Answers on CPH Theory [PDF]

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Experimental Foundation of CPH Theory [PDF]

Logical Foundation of CPH Theory [PDF]

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Time Function and Absolute Black Hole [PDF] 

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Vocabulary of CPH Theory [PDF] 

Quantum Electrodynamics and CPH Theory [PDF] 

Summary of Physics Concepts [PDF]

Unification and CPH Theory [PDF] 

Strong Interaction and CPH Theory [PDF]


Since 1962 I doubted on Newton's laws. I did not accept the infinitive speed and I found un-vivid the laws of gravity and time.

I learned the Einstein's Relativity, thus I found some answers for my questions. But, I had another doubt of Infinitive Mass-Energy. And I wanted to know why light has stable speed?




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