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  CPH Theory is based  on  Generalized light velocity from energy  into mass.


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 Stephen Hawking gave an introductory speech




Stephen Hawking gave an introductory speech

for the EyeforPharma Europe 2000 conference

You might wonder why I'm talking at this conference about the future evolution of the human race. I am not a geneticist or an expert on DNA and I have only a lay person's knowledge of biology. On the other hand, I have thought quite a lot about the origin of the universe and the significance of the fact that it led to complex structures that evolved to intelligent life. By intelligent life, I don't just mean DNA based humanoid life like you see in Star Trek. On the basis of its behavior, I wouldn't put the human race very high in the intelligence stakes. 

     I think the range of possible life forms in the universe is much wider and includes electronic systems like computers. Biologists are expert on the DNA tree of life, but maybe it takes someone outside biology to see the wider forest. I can also say things about genetic engineering that those in the field may think but wouldn't dare utter publicly because they feel under attack. It is in this complexity that I think the most important developments of the future will be. By far the most complex systems that we have are our own bodies. 

      Life seems to have originated in the primordial oceans that covered the Earth four billion years ago. How this happened, we don't know. It may be that random collisions between atoms built up matter or molecules that could reproduce themselves and assemble themselves into more complicated structures. What we do know is that by three and a half billion years ago, the highly complicated molecule, DNA, had emerged. DNA is the basis for all life on Earth but there is nothing inevitable about it. There are probably other chemical structures that can encode genetic information and reproduce it. They may be realized in life forms on other planets. As you know, DNA has a double helix structure, like a spiral staircase, which was discovered by Francis Crick and James Watson in the Cavendish Lab at Cambridge in 1953. The two strands of the double helix are linked by pairs of nicolic acids like the treads in a spiral staircase. The order in which the different nicolic acids occur along the spiral staircase carries the genetic information that enables the DNA molecule to assemble an organism around it and reproduce itself. 

      As the DNA made copies of itself, there would have been occasional errors in the order of the nicolic acids along the spiral. In most cases, the mistakes in copying would have made the DNA unable to reproduce itself. Such genetic errors or mutations would die out. But in a few cases, the error mutation would increase the chances of the DNA surviving and reproducing. Thus the information content in the sequence of nicolic acids would gradually evolve and increase in complexity because biological evolution is basically a random walk in the space of all genetic possibilities, it has been very slow. The complexity, or number of bits of information that are coded in DNA, is roughly the number of nicolic acids in the molecule. 

      For the first two billion years or so, the rate of increase in complexity must have been of the order of one bit of information every hundred years. The rate of increase of DNA complexity gradually rose to about one bit a year over the last few million years. But then a major new development occurred about six or eight thousand years ago. We developed written language. This meant that information could be passed from one generation to the next without having to wait for the very slow process of random mutations and natural selection to code them into the DNA sequence. The amount of complexity increased enormously. A single paperback romance could hold as much information as the difference in DNA between apes and humans, and a 30-volume encyclopedia could describe the entire sequence of human DNA. Even more important, the information in books can be updated rapidly. 

      The current rate at which human DNA is being updated by biological evolution is about one bit a year. But there are 200,000 new books published each year, a new information rate of over a million bits a second. Of course, most of this information is garbage but even if only one bit in a million is useful, that is still a hundred thousand times faster than biological evolution. This transmission of data through external, non-biological means has led the human race to dominate the world and have an exponentially increasing population. 

      But now we are at the beginning of a new era in which we will be able to increase the complexity of our internal record, the DNA, without having to wait for the slow process of biological evolution. There has been no significant change in human DNA in the last ten thousand years but it is likely that we will be able to completely redesign it in the next thousand. Of course, many people will say that genetic engineering on humans should be banned, but I rather doubt if they will be able to prevent it. Genetic engineering on plants and animals will be allowed for economic reasons and someone is bound to try it on humans. Unless we have a totalitarian world order, someone will design improved humans somewhere. 

      Will this increase of human capabilities go on forever or is there a natural limit? Up to now, the limit on human intelligence has been set by the size of the brain that will pass through the birth canal. Having watched my three children being born, I know how difficult it is to get the head out. But within the next hundred years, I expect we will be able to grow babies outside the human body so this limitation will be removed. But ultimately increases in the size of the human brain through genetic engineering will come up against a problem that mechanical messages responsible for our mental activity are relatively slow moving. So further increases in the complexity of the brain will be at the expense of speed. We can be quick witted or very intelligent, but not both. 

      Assuming we don't destroy ourselves in the next hundred years, I expect we will spread out first to the planets in the solar system and then to the nearby stars. But it won't be like Star Trek or Battle in Five with a new race of nearly human beings in almost every stellar system. The human race has been in its present form for only two million years out of the fifteen billion years or so since the Big Bang. So even if life develops in other stellar systems, the chances of catching it at a recognizably human stage are very small. Any alien life we encounter will either be much more primitive or much more advanced. And if it is more advanced, why hasn't it spread through the galaxy and visited Earth. Some people claim there is a government conspiracy to hush up UFOs, but I think it would have been obvious if aliens had come here. More like Independence Day, than ET. 

      So how does one account for our lack of extraterrestrial visitors? It could be that there is an advanced race out there which is aware of our existence but is leaving us to stew in our own primitive juices. However, I doubt they would be so considerate to a lower life form. A more reasonable explanation is that there is a very low probability either of life developing on a planet or of that life developing intelligence. Because we claim to be intelligent, though maybe without much ground, we tend to see intelligence as an inevitable consequence of evolution. But I would like to question that. It is not clear that intelligence has much survival value. Bacteria do very well without it and will survive us if our so-called intelligence causes us to wipe ourselves out in a nuclear war. So, as we explore the galaxy, we may find primitive life, but not beings like us.


گروه فارسی س. پی. اچ

فرستنده محمد رضا حسینی





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Since 1962 I doubted on Newton's laws. I did not accept the infinitive speed and I found un-vivid the laws of gravity and time.

I learned the Einstein's Relativity, thus I found some answers for my questions. But, I had another doubt of Infinitive Mass-Energy. And I wanted to know why light has stable speed?




يکشنبه 1 دي 1392

22 December, 2013 13:27

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