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کتاب الکترونیکی سی. پی.اچ


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     به نشریه الکترونیکی سی. پی. اچ. خوش آمدید    

نسبت پژوهش به جامعه، مانند اندیشه است به انسان- جوادی، کتاب گنجهای نیمه پنهان


اظهار نظرها درمورد نظریه سی. پی. اچ

تماس با ما



 بنیاد حمایت از نخبگان ایران



               هیگز نیروی پنجم            


اگر همواره مانند گذشته بينديشيد، هميشه همان چيزهايي را به‌دست مي‌آوريد كه تا بحال كسب كرده‌ايد،  فاينمن





دوستان سلام

با توجه به استقبال شایان توجه از سایت سی. پی. اچ. و تقاضای مکرر دوستان مبنی بر انتشار همزمان مقالات به دو زبان فارسی - انگلیسی ابرای آشنایی بیشتر کاربران گرامی، این سری مقالات منتشر شد. لذا از دوستان علاقهمند که توان ترجمه از انگلیسی به فارسی را دارند، تقاضا می شود نسبت به ترجمه این مقالات اقدام کنند تا با نام خودشان در سایت قرار گیرد. امید است با همکاری دوستان عزیز بتوانیم در افزایش منابع فارسی فیزیک گامی برداریم. برای ارسال مقالات ترجمه شده و تبادل نظر با آدرس زیر تماس بگیرید.

با تشکر - حسین جوادی




An Additional Force

In the late 1980s, experiments that looked at the effect of gravity as a function of distance from earth claimed to have found evidence for a new type of force.

All their results could be explained by ordinary gravitational forces -- because the expected behavior of gravity as you move away from the surface of the earth depends in detail on the profile of the rocks or soil nearby and their densities. Unexpected fissures or extra dense rocks could cause all the effects seen.


The Real Fifth Force, and More?

In the Standard Model, there is at least one additional type of interaction beyond the four known forces (weak, strong, electromagnetic, and gravitational). This force is needed to explain how all the fundamental particle masses are generated. This part of the theory is the least tested experimentally, so there are a number of different competing ideas on how it may work.

The simplest version introduced one more force--the Higgs force--and one more particle type--the Higgs particle--related to this force. Searches for this particle and efforts to learn more about how particle masses occur are one active area of particle studies. Other models introduce more complicated explanations for particle masses.

In addition, there are many speculations about physics beyond the Standard Model that introduce additional types of extremely-weak interactions. These interactions can only be observed if they mediate a process, such as proton decay, that is otherwise totally forbidden. So far, no experimental evidence for such processes has been found. However physicists like this idea, since such additional processes are predicted when we try to unify the strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions into a single "Grand Unified Theory." Such unification is suggested by the similarities of the underlying mathematical theories for these very different interactions.

Unification of all four force types, including gravity, is also a goal for particle physics. Gravity has a different mathematical structure, and so far no complete quantum theory of gravity has been developed. String Theory suggests possible answers, but much work remains to be done.

Higgs Physics

One part of the Standard Model is not yet well established. We do not know what causes the Fundamental particle to have masses. The simplest idea is called the Higgs mechanism. This mechanism involves one additional particle, called the Higgs boson, and one additional force type, mediated by exchanges of this boson.

The Higgs particle has not yet been observed. Today we can only say that if it exists, it must have a mass greater than about 80GeV/c2. Searches for a more massive the Higgs boson are beyond the scope of the present facilities at SLAC or elsewhere. Future facilities, such as the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, or upgrades of present facilities to higher energies are intended to search for the Higgs particle and distinguish between competing concepts.

Thus, this one aspect of the Standard Model does not yet have the status of "theory" but still remains in the realm of hypothesis or model.



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